Review – A Touch of Sin

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Q1: Could you please briefly explain A Touch of Sin to the UK audience?
My latest film A Touch of Sin is a story about four people who use violence to cope with the violence that is inflicted on them. The first story takes place in Shanxi, a town in northern China that produces coal. In this case, the violence was induced by social problems in the area, such as the widening of the gap between the rich and poor, and the unfair distribution of wealth that is becoming more common in that area. The second story happens in Chongqing, a major city near the Yangtze River in the South West of China, which is the most densely populated part of the country. It is a city where a large number of young people have left in order to find jobs in the south of China.This story is based around a professional killer who comes from a village that is in decline. The idea was to show what happens when people go against their current mundane life and get lost on the wrong path. The third story takes place in the middle of China, in Hubei province. A woman is sexually assaulted and uses a knife to defend herself. The final story is about a suicide case in Dongguan city, in Guangdong province which is in the south of China. It sounds like a lot things going on at once, but I wanted to shoot these four stories and turn them into one big piece about violence. The focus is on the isolated and hopeless in society.

Q2: These four stories are based on real-life events. As there are many similar cases that have happened in China, why did you choose these specific ones?
It was a broad-based decision. The issue with these stories is that they were individual but also ubiquitous. I hesitated about whether to include just one of these cases, which would have meant the film would have had more time to tell that story. However, I saw that similar news was being reported again and again on Weibo (the Chinese Twitter), so they are definitely not just one-off cases. It’s a universal misfortune in our modern society. And as it’s a widespread tendency, I decided I should include more cases to present the whole issue rather than a single case study.

Q3: How do you choose the aesthetic of your scenes?
I always want to present a complete landscape of China. I like that kind of aesthetic style from the ancients. When they drew a landscape print they gave it the title: “MILLION MILES landscape”; when they drew a river they called it the “WHOLE Yangtze River” or “MILLION MILES Yangtze River”. It was an ambition for my film to learn from their panoramic point of view. This is also the reason I chose these four stories, so we could make it a journey from the north to the south of China. It also reflects my technique of making film. In the beginning I did not know what kind of technique and language to use for this film, but then I found that the story is very similar to the Wuxia (Chinese martial arts) genre, and especially similar to the films of director King Hu. It’s all about individuals who are repressed, pushed, chased so they have to run away and then fight against these radical social changes through violence. I feel disappointed about a few things: The destiny of modern people is not so different to that of the ancients. It’s the same. First I had this feeling, when you see the mountains and rivers in China, the mountain is the same as a thousand years ago, but people have changed. However, really the same tragedies occur time and again. It’s a very subtle feeling, so those particular scenes and visual backgrounds are very important to me.

Q4: Is there any the most represented scene for the film?
One location in the third story was so difficult to find that we called it “Flees at Night”. I wanted to make a surreal scene just like the part from the classic Chinese novel, Water Margin. I want to find the kind of place that looked like the fake scenery that the Shaw Brothers Studio used back in the 60s and 70s, but in a real location. It can’t look too antique either. We always asked – what is its connection with today? We did find a lot of places looking like the fake studio scenery, but none of them felt modern enough. By coincidence we found a mountain road next to the Shennongjia nature reserve. The road is a modern construction, but the cliff next to the road looks just like a painting. So that scene left a deep impression on me.

Q5: From The World to A Touch of Sin you have collaborated with Lim Giong as your music composer for 10 years. Why?
I like Lim’s music. It contains a kind of free and modern element. His music presents the kind of unrestricted freedom that is very close to the spirit of modern people. He also really understands working in film, so it’s very easy to communicate with him. I quite like his working method too. We will discuss which parts of the film he needs to compose for, and he will normally write a few words as a note. For example, when Wang BaoQiang was riding his bike in the first scene of A Touch of Sin. I described the scene and he wrote down “Chu-Jiang”*, which is a phrase from the Chinese Opera Chu-Jiang, Ru Xiang. When I saw his note I knew he understood the language of my film and how I wanted to present that particular scene like a Chinese opera, when the main character first appears on the stage.

* Chu-Jiang is the door in Chinese opera where characters enter the stage.

Q6: Have you seen the UK trailer?
Yes I did, but I don’t really get it. Because there are a lot of question marks and I don’t understand. What are they going on about?

Q7: Some people compare you with Quentin Tarantino, what do you think?
Of course there are a lot of people discussing this and I think it’s easy to understand as I know Tarantino also likes the films of the Shaw Brothers studio. The inspiration for a lot of his films is Japanese Samurai movies and the Shaw Brothers studio. We have a similar taste in films, so the connection between us comes from this mutual resource of films we love.

Q8: You have travelled to many countries since the film’s launch. What kind of reactions have you had from people?
I have been to many different countries since Cannes in May last year and exchanged thoughts with audiences. Generally speaking, I understand that the problem of violence is actually an international issue. Every country has this issue, regardless of culture, social or economic system, from China to Japan, USA, Canada, France, the UK and Russia. I remember one thing that had quite an impact on me. I went to Russia right after the Cannes Festival finished. There were many old people who came to have a chat with me after they saw A Touch of Sin. (Chinese old men?) No, Russian old men. They came to thank me for shooting a film about Russia. I didn’t understand what they meant, but then I realised the issues I pointed out in the film are happening in Russia too. Violence is a very important human issue. Everyone has the potential to use violence and there are many reasons this becomes a possibility.

Q9: So, your film easily connects with people from different countries and backgrounds?
Yes, I talk about it as humanity’s issue because it’s a side of human nature we all need to face. However, when we talk about any society, we think of it as unique. For example the society in the UK is unique; the society in China is unique; the society in Russia is unique, but actually the development process is the same. Each country encounters the same phases, the difference is in the timing. I had this kind of feeling more after shooting Xiao Wu. My first film Xiao Wu was in 1998 and I heard that a lot of the Taiwanese audience thought the film was very similar to 80s Taiwan, which is the era of the film The Boys from Fengkuei by director Hou Hsiao-Hsien. Japanese people think the film is similar to their society in the 50s and 60s after the war. Also, the Cantonese think it’s similar to society in 70s Hong Kong. So I think the reason my films reach people is because, despite the differences in timing, the social processes are very similar.

Q10: What kind of impact do you hope A Touch of Sin will bring in the future?
From point of view of the story and topic, I hope we can understand these social problems and learn to face them. We can read the film as a moral or legal condemnation, but it’s also very important to deconstruct it artistically. This is why as artists we insist that we see things from an artistic angle, because it’s a way to comprehend human behaviour that cannot be supplanted by law or morality.

Q11: In the very last scene of the film a group of people stare at the screen. What does it mean?
It’s very simple. Everyone should think of this issue!!

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中文專訪全文

Q1: 能不能跟英國的讀者介紹一下『天註定』?
我最近的電影『天注定』是講述了四個人物都處在一種極端的處境裡面,都是用暴力來回應施加給他們身上的暴力。第一個故事發生在山西,也就是中國的北部的煤礦的一個地區。在那裏人比較多的社會問題,比如說貧富差異、分配的不公平,它所誘發的暴力事件。第二個故事發生在西南的重慶、臨近長江,是中國人口最稠密的地方。大量的年輕人都離開土地、故鄉去南方、去打工。在這樣的衰敗、荒涼的一個村莊裡面的職業殺手的故事。其實想講的是人在對抗自己的平庸的時候所走入的一種迷失、一種迷途。第三個故事發生在中國中部的湖北,講一個女性受到了侵犯,然後她用刀來回應這種侵犯。講起來很多,但我是想四個人物當一個故事來拍,也就是一個關於暴力的故事。其實最關注的是在這個背後人的一種孤立無援的狀態。

Q2 我們知道這四個故事是源自於真實的社會事件,當時中國同樣發生很多類似的事件,為什麼選了這四個故事?
當初決定拍四個故事是一個非常綜合的考慮,那麼首先也是一個個案和普遍性的問題,因為當時也猶豫過要不要只拍一個故事,他有更多的時間來講述,更從容的來講述一個事件。但是我覺得因為比如我們使用微博時我們看大量的類似的事件不停的再發生,那它就絕對不單單是一個個案了,是目前的一個社會階段裡發生的一種普遍性的不幸。那它是一個趨勢性的問題,所以我覺得應該多拍幾個故事來把這種普遍性呈現出來,打破那種一個故事的個案的色彩。

Q3: 談到美學的部分,因為您的取景都很壯麗,並從北拍到南,可不可以聊一下您怎麼取景?
我一直有個興趣想拍一個(大中國)中國完整的面貌,因為我滿喜歡古人的那種美學的趣味。他們畫一張畫就會寫『萬里河山圖』,畫一條水就會說這是整個長江圖、萬里長江圖,對我覺得他們那種高度的蓋括跟一種全景式的觀看是今天電影上市的一種野心。那我覺得這部電影就講這四個故事,這四個故事我們正好可以把他安排從北到南一次中國的旅程。
還有一個我覺得這也是跟這部電影的手法相統一, 因為當時一開始也不知道怎麼去,用什麼電影方法、語言來拍這部電影,後來是發現其實故事跟武俠片很像,特別是胡金銓導演的一些電影,都是在講一個大的社會變動裡面個體受到了壓抑、受到了危機、受到了追殺,然後家庭在流亡、個人在流亡,最後用暴力來反抗。那我就覺得挺失望的,古人的命運跟今天人的命運,今天人的命運跟古人的命運沒太大的進步,是一樣的。那麼我覺得有了這樣的一種感受,有時候看中國的名山大川會有這種感覺,山還是那個山,然後人變了,但是然後再一看發生的事情還沒變,這樣的感覺很微妙。所以我覺得那些背景、那些視覺背景對我來說就變得很重要。

Q4:有沒有哪一景對你來說最具代表性的?
我們找得比較辛苦的,是第三個故事裡面,我們叫『夜奔』的地方。因為我們把那個段落在拍的時候,我希望把它變成一個超現實的段落,好像水滸傳裡面的夜奔的段落一樣。那我們找了很多那個分景,因為我特別想找類似那種60、70年代邵氏電影公司,他們在攝影棚裡那種畫出來的景,但我又希望它是真實的,它不能是完全跑到古代,它跟今天的聯繫是什麼,所以我們找了很多很像攝影棚的,但它真的古代沒有一點現在的氣息。後來我們是很偶然我們本來是去看神農架,結果在神農架旁邊有一個路有一條路,它是一條攀山的公路,那個公路是很今天的東西很現代化的東西,但兩邊全是那個好像畫出來的一樣,對那個景是滿印象深刻的。

Q5您跟林強從『世界』到『天注定』合作了將近10年的時間,為什麼一直選用林強的音樂?
我特別喜歡林強音樂就是我覺得他有一個很自由的現在的節奏,他音樂呈現的自由、自在和孤獨感,就非常接近現代人的精神,而且他特別理解電影,我們的交談其實非常簡單,他有個工作方法我滿喜歡的,我們一起來討論電影裡有哪些地方需要配樂,他都會給那些地方寫兩個字,作個標記,比如說天注定一開始王寶強騎著摩托車出來,我說這裡需要音樂,他就寫一個『出將』就是京劇裡『出將入相*』,他一寫這兩個字,我覺得他特別了解我的電影方法,因為我整個調度方法就好像京劇一個主人翁出場的樣子。

*『出將入相』原意指有才能的人出征可當將軍、入朝可當宰相,但用於京劇則是指舞台上左右兩側的出場、退場門。主角由『出將』門上場,『入相』門退場。

Q6:您有看過英國的預告片嗎?
我有看到,但沒看太明白,因為它有很多問號,那些問題我不知道他在問什麼。

Q7 有些人將你跟昆汀塔倫提諾導演相比,您怎麼看
當然很多人在談論這個事情,因為我覺得非常容易理解吧,因為我知道昆汀導演非常喜歡邵式的電影,他的很多電影的靈感來自於日本的武士片跟邵式的影片。那我自己從初中到高中6年裡面看得最多的電影也就是邵式的電影、武俠片。我們擁有同樣的一個熱愛的電影的源頭, 所以應該說這種連繫性來自於我們非常喜歡電影的傳統

Q8: 拍片的動機來自過去中國過去幾年的社會新聞及所看到的微博討論的聲音,在拍完這部片,你在海外走了這麼多地方,你聽到了甚麼樣的聲音?
我從去年五月坎城開始走了很多國家,跟各個國家的觀眾有交流,普遍來說我覺得它越來越讓我明白其實暴力問題其實它是一個國際性的問題。不同的國家都存在這樣的問題,不同的文化,不同的社會制度、經濟制度之下,你從中國到日本到美國、加拿大、法國、英國、俄羅斯都存在這樣的問題。我記得最讓我震働的是,坎城剛結束我就去了俄羅斯,然後我們放完天注定很多老人家跟我聊天,(中國的)俄羅斯的老人家,俄羅斯的老人家就會說謝謝你拍了一部俄羅斯的電影,他們一說我有點矇,說什麼意思? 後來我明白了,就是其實好像是拍俄羅斯人、俄羅斯社會一樣。所以我覺得它是一個非常重要的一個人性的問題,就是說我們每個人身上似乎都有某一種暴力的可能性,各種樣的原因會誘發這種可能性出來,

Q9 我聽過您說您之前在拍站台的時候,您拍的是90年代的中國,但很多台灣人說這是60年代的台灣、70年代的東京。雖然您拍的是現代的中國但透過電影您可以跟不同國家的人有共鳴?
對,剛剛我講到比較多的是人性的問題,因為只要是人都要面對同樣的問題,但另外一方面比如說如果我們涉及到人背後的社會,有時候我們總會覺得每個社會都是獨特的,比如說英國社會是獨特的,中國社會是獨特的,俄羅斯的社會是獨特的,但實際上人在演進的過程之中,不同的國家都會經過相同的階段,只不過那個階段發生的不是同一個時間。(早或晚)對,那個時候,我比較多這種理解是在小武的時候,我的第一部電影小武是在98年推出的,哪時候我聽到比如說台灣觀眾就會覺得很像台灣的80年代,就是侯導侯孝賢拍風櫃來的人的時代;那麼碰到日本人覺得像他們的戰後5、60年代,那也有的人會有的觀眾香港人會覺得像他們的70年代,那我就覺得就是不同的地區發展的時間不一樣但發展的過程非常相像,那這也是一個作品能夠引起共鳴的原因。

Q10: 希望天注定產生甚麼樣的影響?
就電影所表現的故事和題材來說,我希望我們理解那些社會問題,然後能去面對它。因為道德的譴責、法律的制裁,它是一個層面,但是藝術的理解是非常重要的,這是為什麼我們藝術家堅持藝術的角度,因為它是法律、道德所替代不了的理解人的一種理解方法。

Q11 您的最後一幕是,一群人看著鏡頭,這一幕代表的意思是?
就很簡單,就大家都想一想吧!!

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Feature: Interview with director Jia Zhangke - A Touch of Sin, 5.0 out of 5 based on 2 ratings
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